The Cost Analysis of the Private and Public Health Facilities for Delivering Outpatient Services: A Study Conducted in Bangladesh
Md. Mahfujur Rahman, Md. Al-Amin, Kazi Mahfuzur, ,
Affiliations 1: Institute of Health Economics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh ; 2: Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3: Institute of Disaster Management and Vulnerability Studies, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh
The government of Bangladesh tries to provide free healthcare services locally through community clinics, satellite clinics, Union Health & Family Welfare Center (UH&FWC), etc. But all these facilities still unable to fulfill the local demand. So, people visit private medical institutions to receive proper treatment. They need to pay for each unit of private healthcare services. The study considered eight UH&FWC in rural areas and eight private clinics in urban areas from 8 districts of Bangladesh. We accumulated the various categories of cost-related data of these facilities e.g. physicians and other staff's salary, hospital rent and other equipment costs, etc. and also the number of patients treated by each facility each month. Thus, we estimated the per month cost of producing each unit of outpatient services. The cost of producing per unit outpatient services differed from facilities to facilities. The cost in the UH&FWC ranged from BDT 178 ($2.09) to BDT 197 ($2.32). At the same time, this cost in the private clinic was BDT 87 ($1.02) to BDT 92 ($1.08). The health care cost between public and private health facilities altered due to the variation in cost and utilization of services from these health facilities. However, private health facilities are more efficient than public health facilities. If we would like to reduce the cost of public health facilities, we must ensure transparency in the facilities.
Md. Mahfujur Rahman,Md. Al-Amin,Kazi Mahfuzur."The Cost Analysis of the Private and Public Health Facilities for Delivering Outpatient Services: A Study Conducted in Bangladesh". International Journal of Computer Engineering In Research Trends (IJCERT) , ISSN:2349-7084, Vol.7, Issue 12,pp. 7-13, December - 2020, URL :https://ijcert.org/ems/ijcert_papers/V7I202.pdf,
Keywords : Healthcare, Union Health & Family Welfare Center, Public Health Facilities, Private Clinic.
 Begum F, Alam S, Hossain A. Funds for treatment of hospitalized patients: Evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of Health, J Health Popul Nutr. 2014; 32(3): p. 465-470. Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221452/
 Hollingsworth A, Soni A, Carroll A, Cawley J, Simon K. Gains in health insurance coverage explain variation in Democratic vote share in the 2008-2016 presidential elections. PLOS ONE. 2019;14(4): p. 1-16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214206
 Branning G, Vater M. Healthcare spending: Plenty of blame to go around. Am Health Drug Benefits. 2016; 9(8): p. 445-447. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5394555/
 China: health expenditure per capita 2018 | Statista [Internet]. Statista. 2020 [cited 24 October 2020]. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/279401/per-capita-health-expenditure-in-china/#:~:text=Per%20capita%20health%20expenditure%20in%20China%202008%2D2018&text=The%20graph%20shows%20health%20expenditures,yuan%20in%20the%20previous%20year.
 Danilova M. ‘Free’ healthcare in Russia has cost. Los Angeles Times [Internet]. 2007 [cited 24 October 2020]; Available from: https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2007-jul-15-adfg-rushospitals15-story.html
 How does UK healthcare spending compare with other countries? - Office for National Statistics [Internet]. Ons.gov.uk. 2020 [cited 24 October 2020]. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/healthcaresystem/articles/howdoesukhealthcarespendingcomparewithothercountries/2019-08-29#:~:text=As%20a%20percentage%20of%20GDP,the%20remaining%20six%20G7%20countries.
 Italy: per capita expenditure on health 2006-2019 | Statista [Internet]. Statista. 2020 [cited 24 October 2020]. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/788710/per-capita-expenditure-on-health-in-italy/#:~:text=Per%20capita%20expenditure%20on%20health%20in%20Italy%202006%2D2019&text=This%20statistic%20illustrates%20the%20expenditure,estimated%202%2C565%20euros%20in%2020.
 China: health expenditure per capita 2018 | Statista [Internet]. Statista. 2020 [cited 24 October 2020]. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/279401/per-capita-health-expenditure-inchina/#:~:text=Per%20capita%20health%20expenditure%20in%20China%202008%2D2018&text=The%20graph%20shows%20health%20expenditures,yuan%20in%20the%20previous%20year.
 Li X, Krumholz H, Yip W, Cheng K, De Maeseneer J, Meng Q et al. Quality of primary health care in China: challenges and recommendations. The Lancet. 2020;395(10239):1802-1812. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30122-7
 Tandon A. India’s per capita health spending dismal Rs 1,657. The Tribune [Internet]. 2019 [cited 24 October 2020]; Available from: https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/archive/nation/india-s-per-capita-health-spending-dismal-rs-1-657-855027#:~:text=NEW%20DELHI%3A%20India%20continues%20to,is%20a%20mere%20Rs%201%2C657.
 Kasthuri A. Challenges to healthcare in India - the five A's. Ind J Community Med. 2018; 43(3): p. 141-143. doi:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_194_18
 Pakistan Health expenditure per capita, 1960-2018 - knoema.com [Internet]. Knoema. 2020 [cited 24 October 2020]. Available from: https://knoema.com/atlas/Pakistan/Health-expenditure-per-capita#:~:text=Pakistan%20%2D%20Current%20health%20expenditure%20per%20capita&text=In%202017%2C%20health%20expenditure%20per,average%20annual%20rate%20of%208.57%25.
 Sarwar A, Qureshi H. Awareness and willingness to buy private health insurance and a look into its future prospects in Pakistan. Eur J Business Soc Sci. 2013; 2(1): p. 69-81.
 The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh [Internet]. Bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. 2020 [cited 24 October 2020]. Available from: http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/act-367.html
 Pavel M, Chakrabarty S, Gow J. Cost of illness for outpatients attending public and private hospitals in Bangladesh. Int J Equity Health. 2016; 15(1). doi: 10.1186/s12939-016-0458-x
 Fahim S, Bhuayan T, Hassan M, Abid Zafr A, BF, Rahman M, et al. Financing health care in Bangladesh: Policy responses and challenges towards achieving universal health coverage. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2018; 34(1): p. e11-e20. doi: 10.1002/hpm.2666
 Brekke K, Sorgard L. Public versus private health care in a national health service. Health Econ. 2007; 16(6): p. 579-601. doi: 10.1002/hec
 Financing health services in developing countries: an agenda for reform. [Internet]. Vol. 22, Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization. Washington DC: World Bank; 1988. 416–429 p. Available from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/468091468137379607/pdf/multi-page.pdf
 Migotti M. Paying a pice, fcing a Fine, cunting the Cost: The dfferences that mke the dfference. Ratia Juris. 2015; 28(3): p. 372-391. doi: 10.1111/raju.12088
 Harsvardhan R, Singh I, Sharma D. A cost analysis study of inpatient care services at a large tertiary care teaching institute at New Delhi, India. Int J Research F Hospital and Healthcare Admin. 2014; 2(1): p. 15-18. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10035-1009
 Vo T, Chaikledkaew U, Hoang M, Nguyen H, Riewpaiboon A. Hospital cost analysis in developing countries: A methodological comparison in Vietnam. Asian J Pharm. 2017;(Special Issue): p. 8-18. doi: 10.22377/ajp.v12i01.2341
 Plante C. The differentiation between for-profit and nonprofit hospitals: Another look. Res Healthcare Fin Manage. 2009; 12(1): p. 7-17. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1911696
 Bazzoli G, Clement J, Hsieh H. Community benefit activities of private, nonprofit hospitals. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2010; 35(6): p. 999-1026. doi: 10.1215/03616878-2010-036
Authors are not required to pay any article-processing charges (APC) for their article to be published open access in Journal IJCERT. No charge is involved in any stage of the publication process, from administrating peer review to copy editing and hosting the final article on dedicated servers. This is free for all authors.
News & Events
Latest issue :Volume 10 Issue 1 Articles In press
☞ INVITING SUBMISSIONS FOR THE NEXT ISSUE :
☞ LAST DATE OF SUBMISSION : 31st March 2023
☞ SUBMISSION TO FIRST DECISION : In 7 Days
☞ FINAL DECISION : IN 3 WEEKS FROM THE DAY OF SUBMISSION
All the authors, conference coordinators, conveners, and guest editors kindly check their articles' originality before submitting them to IJCERT. If any material is found to be duplicate submission or sent to other journals when the content is in the process with IJCERT, fabricated data, cut and paste (plagiarized), at any stage of processing of material, IJCERT is bound to take the following actions.
1. Rejection of the article.
2. The author will be blocked for future communication with IJCERT if duplicate articles are submitted.
3. A letter regarding this will be posted to the Principal/Director of the Institution where the study was conducted.
4. A List of blacklisted authors will be shared among the Chief Editors of other prestigious Journals
We have been screening articles for plagiarism with a world-renowned tool: Turnitin However, it is only rejected if found plagiarized. This more stern action is being taken because of the illegal behavior of a handful of authors who have been involved in ethical misconduct. The Screening and making a decision on such articles costs colossal time and resources for the journal. It directly delays the process of genuine materials.